A Companion to Metaphysics by Jaegwon Kim, Visit Amazon's Ernest Sosa Page, search

By Jaegwon Kim, Visit Amazon's Ernest Sosa Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Ernest Sosa, , Gary S. Rosenkrantz

Totally prolonged and revised, A spouse to Metaphysics second Edition encompasses a portion of specified overview essays from popular metaphysicians, and the addition of greater than 30 new encyclopedic entries, taking the variety of entries to over three hundred.

  • Includes revisions to latest encyclopedic entries
  • Features greater than 30 all-new "A to Z" entries
  • Offers a bit of in-depth, essays from popular metaphysicians
  • Provides the main entire and updated reference consultant for college kids and pros alike

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Undetermined events in the brain and body would therefore undermine our freedom rather than enhance it. Hard incompatibilists have also been concerned with the impact their denial of free will would have for morality and the meaning of life. Some of them, such as Honderich and Pereboom, argue that we can still live meaningful lives without the illusion of libertarian free will, though some important “life-hopes” and attitudes would have to change. For example, we could no longer believe that criminal punishment was ultimately deserved.

But why, it may be asked, must we suppose that all living organisms, say – and certainly all animals – share the same criterion of identity? For the following reason. “Animal” – unlike, for instance, “material object” – does at least appear to be a sortal term in good standing, conveying a criterion of identity for the objects to which it applies. After all, we can always intelligibly ask whether an individual animal encountered on one occasion is or is not identical with another individual animal encountered on another occasion – and in order to determine the answer to such a question, we do not necessarily need to know what sort or sorts of animal these individuals are.

Qxd 1/12/09 3:04 PM Page 29 i ndivi duat i on things – in this case, certain living organisms – in a certain way. What way is that? Well, of course, such a person is able to think of certain living organisms as being cats. And what does this involve? Well, among other things, it involves being able to think of these organisms as possessing certain characteristic properties, such as furriness and warmbloodedness, and – most importantly for present purposes – as satisfying a certain criterion of identity.

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