By A. Roy
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Extra resources for A First Course on Aerodynamics
The dynamic component comes from the macroscopic kinetic energy of the molecules in the direction of flow. 8c) and assume that the gas is calorically perfect, then we can write the equation as follows 47 A First Course on Aerodynamics Fundamentals of Inviscid Compressible Flow Note that the above form of energy equation is valid for adiabatic flows. We remove the subscripts for station 1 and imagine that the gas reaches stagnation condition at station 2. Then we can write the above equation as It is to be noted from the above equation that when defining stagnation temperature the flow needs to be adiabatic but not necessarily isentropic.
Flow past a normal shock wave is one such flow. Normal shock is a thin layer formed perpendicular to the flow direction across which there is almost discontinuous jump of certain flow and thermodynamic properties like static pressure, temperature, density, velocity, entropy, etc. Again, certain properties like stagnation temperature or stagnation enthalpy remain conserved. It is a very strong pressure wave which is formed when a large number of weaker pressure waves agglomerate. Normal shocks can form near the nose region of blunt objects, inside converging-diverging flow passages etc.
Consider a small element of fluid of volume v. The pressure exerted on the surface of the element by the neighboring fluid is p. If the pressure acting on the element is now increased by an infinitesimal amount dp the volume of the element will be correspondingly compressed by the amount dv. The change would be accompanied by a negative sign because it is a reduction. 2 shows that the resulting change in density will be small for liquids due to their low values of compressibility, and large for gases due to their high values of compressibility.