By El Sayed H. El Ashry and Ahmed A. Kassem
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Extra resources for Account of microwave irradiation for accelerating organic reactions
4Samples as received but treated with 2% HzOz. surfaces. B. ” We would certainly expect to find wide variations in the surface area of organic matter from different sources and having different degrees of humification. ) its content of essential nutrients and their availability to plants; (2) the exchange capacity; (3) the buffering capacity; (4) acidity or alkalinity; and (5) content of inorganic and organic colloids (humus). Perhaps the state of oxidation or reduction of the soil should be mentioned; this is ordinarily not of major importance but may be if a waterlogged or poorly-drained soil is under consideration.
Wind may also move large amounts of soil in dry regions and deposit it elsewhere to form loess soils, or dunes consisting of piles of sand. Rock fragments so moved may exert a marked abrasive action on each other or where they strike undecomposed rocks. Like most other soil-forming processes, the action is slow but the total effect may be large when centuries are involved. Chemical changes Water, oxygen and carbon dioxide are the agents responsible for most of the chemical decomposition of rocks; other agents involved to a lesser extent are inorganic and organic acids.
Some can synthesize all of the growth factors that they need but others require outside sources of certain amino acids, biotin, nicotinic acid, etc. A few can utilize atmospheric nitrogen-but most of them must obtain their nitrogen from the soil or from the material that supplies their growth energy. Many of the heterotrophs grow well at room temperature whereas others grow only in the thermophilic range of 50-70°C. Some species are adaptable to a range of temperatures, usually preferring the mesophilic range of 25-35°C but tolerant of temperatures of 50°C and above.