By C.H. Heathcock
Quantity 2 offers commonly with the addition reactions of delocalized carbanions (enolates) and their man made family members (metalloenamines, enol ethers, allyl organometallics) with carbonyl compounds, imines and iminium ions. significant emphasis is put on C-C bond-forming reactions comparable to the aldol and Mannich reactions. Acylation reactions also are incorporated during this quantity. numerous subject matters that experience no longer formerly been reviewed are coated, together with using enzymatic aldol reactions in synthesis and the Passerini-Ugi reactions.
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Additional info for Additions to C-X &pgr;-Bonds, Part 2, Volume 2
If the residue is black it should be heated until all the carbon has burned off. If the original substance contained a metal there will be left in the crucible after ignition either a metal, an oxide, or a carbonate. This residue should be identified by the methods of inorganic qualitative analysis. Organic compounds which leave residues on ignition are usually metallic salts of acids. If it is reasonably certain that the substance does not contain a metal which is readily reduced by carbon, the ignition can be made on a platinum foil.
From the side-tube. In distilling with small flasks an asbestos shield as described in §18, page 10, and a very small flame should always be used; a short thermometer reduces the error arising from stem-exposure. The boiling-point of 1 cc. of liquid can be determined in this way. In heating the substance, the flame should be applied, at first, in such a way that the vapor condenses in the flask just before it reaches the side-tube. In this way the thermometer is heated up to the temperature of the vapor before the latter is driven over.
It is not advisable to place the extract in a beaker or other open vessel, as the solvent will be lost if the solution stands for some time. When the solution is dry, the solvent can be removed by distillation. If ether or any other very volatile and inflammable liquid is used, the flask containing the solvent should be heated on a water-bath, and should be provided with a long waterjacketed condenser and a special form of receiver. This is made by attaching to the condenser, by means of a tightly fitting 24 EXPERIMENTAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY stopper, an adapter, which, in turn, is attached in the same way to a filter-bottle.