By Qiming Zhou, Brian Lees, Guo-an Tang
Terrain research has attracted study experiences from geographers, surveyors, engineers and laptop scientists. The contributions during this e-book characterize the state of the art of terrain research equipment and strategies in components of electronic illustration, morphological and hydrological versions, uncertainty and functions of terrain research. The booklet will attract postgraduate and senior undergraduate scholars who take complex classes in GIS and geographical analysis.
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Extra info for Advances in Digital Terrain Analysis
A multi-temporal analysis and change detection of their morphology might provide answers for the global climatic change in desert environments. Figure 10. Mega-dunes (aeolian landforms). (a) The SRTM DEM of the study area (the brighter the pixel, the greater its elevation) (b) A physiographic map and the location of the study area in SW Egypt. (c) Shaded relief map of the SRTM DEM of the study area. An initial experiment on the delineation of megadunes is presented in Figure 11. Slope (Figure 11b) was derived from the DEM (Figure 11a).
SHARY Figure 10. Replacing of wiggly contour lines (left) with smoothed ones diminishes regular artefacts from Gibbs-like phenomena (right). Light colours refer to positive profile curvature, dark ones – to negative values. Popular algorithms to calculate local topographic variables (described in the next section) normally do not use a single surface, but rather ‘sheets’ of smooth surface pieces that are not connected at their boundaries (Dikau 1988). 2 Spatial averaging A gridded DEM is a set of regularly spaced (in plan) points with elevations ascribed to each (Figure 11).
For all calculations and map images, the author’s software ‘Analytical GIS Eco’ (Shary 2005) was used. 1 Restrictions of topography A general method, especially when DEMs are used, is to describe elevations by a function z = f(x,y), where elevation z depends on plan coordinates x, y, and z has only one value at each location (x,y) (Cayley 1859). This restriction is essentially a simplification, which means that researchers usually do not quantitatively describe ‘ceilings’ (of caves), overhangs, boulders, and so on (Shary 1995), (Figure 1a).