By M. Yavuz Corapcioglu
This publication is the 3rd quantity of a sequence: ''Advances in Porous Media''. Our aim is to give in-depth evaluate papers that supply finished assurance to the sector of delivery in porous media. This sequence treats shipping phenomena in porous media as an interdisciplinary subject. hence, ''Advances in Porous Media'' will proceed to advertise the extension of rules and functions in a single quarter to others, slicing throughout conventional obstacles. the target of every bankruptcy is to study the paintings performed on a particular subject together with theoretical, numerical in addition to experimental reports. The individuals of this quantity, as for prior ones, come from a number of backgrounds: civil and environmental engineering, and earth and environmental sciences. The articles are aimed toward all scientists and engineers in quite a few different fields desirous about the basics and functions of approaches in porous media.
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Lee et al. (1988) reported studies in which adsorption increased or decreased biodegradation and postulated that sorption may increase biodegradation under ohgotrophic (nutrient poor) conditions by concentrating nutrients, but may decrease biodegradation under nutrient-rich conditions by competing with microorganisms for substrate. Simulations of BTEX degradation performed by Borden and Bedient (1986) indicated that adsorption may enhance biodegradation by allowing oxygen to continuously move into the retarded contaminant plume.
These constitutive relations include: - capillary pressures = / ( P " , P^) - saturations = / (capillary pressures) - densities = / (phase pressure, composition of phase) - viscosity = / ( p r e s s u r e , phase composition) - equilibrium partition coefficients or kinetic expressions for interphase mass transfer. The above constitutive relationships make the system of equations highly nonlinear so that they must be solved using numerical methods. 4. Simplifications for column studies Many of the models reviewed in this report describe biodegradation in only one dimension and only account for a single phase—the aqueous phase.
In the next section, these factors are described in more detail and the methods other researchers have used to account for them are presented. 2. Transport equations This section briefly describes the main equations for multi-phase, multi-component NAPL transport. More complete descriptions of the governing equations and solution methods can be found in other sources (Abriola, 1989; Pinder and Abriola, 1986; Corapcioglu and Baehr, 1987). Although multi-phase flow and solute transport equations may be written in innumerable ways, most developments begin with basic mass balance equations, supplemented by constitutive relationships to solve the system for all of the 20 Modeling subsurface biodegradation of non-aqueous phase liquids variables.