American Indians in World War I: at home and at war by Thomas A. Britten

By Thomas A. Britten

In the course of international struggle I, approximately 10,000 local american citizens both enlisted or have been drafted into the yank Expeditionary strength. 3 comparable questions are tested extensive for the 1st time during this ebook: What have been the battlefield reports of local american citizens? How did racial and cultural stereotypes approximately Indians have an effect on their tasks? Did their wartime contributions bring about adjustments in federal Indian coverage or their typical of living?Many American Indians amazing themselves scuffling with at the Western entrance. And compared to black and Mexican American squaddies, Indians loved close to common admire whilst in uniform. To rejoice their patriotism in the course of and after the struggle, Indians might even practice a number of conventional ceremonies in a different way proscribed. either in wrestle and of their aid roles at the homefront, together with volunteer contributions via Indian girls, local americans was hoping their efforts could bring about a extra lively program of democracy. however the Bureau of Indian Affairs persevered to chop well-being and teaching programs and to suppress Indian cultures. "This is a main e-book and an important contribution to twentieth-century Indian history."--Professor Donald L. Parman

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In an article published in The United Service (a military-service maga- Page 15 zine) in the fall of 1880, Captain H. C. Cushing, Fourth Artillery, advocated the "military colonization" of Native Americans, whereby Indians would be organized into military settlements under the supervision of white officers. Military discipline and training would be encouraged and result in "the destruction of the tribal idea and the cultivation of individuality" among American Indians. 17 Three years later, the United States Senate passed a resolution calling on its committee on Indian affairs to investigate the possibility of establishing a military academy west of the Mississippi River to train Indian youths for military service.

Grierson, the former commander of the all-black Tenth Cavalry Regiment, all opposed the idea. Only Generals David S. Stanley, T. R. O. Howard favored the scheme. Thus, in the spring of 1890 six of the nine highest-ranking army officers expressed varying degrees of opposition to the plan to enlist Indians as regular soldiers. 28 Even with the lukewarm reception accorded by top army brass, the success of Casey and Wheeler prompted General Schofield and Secretary Proctor to act on the matter of enlisting Indians as regulars.

They maintained, for example, that the practice made the army appear weak and incapable of controlling a small but powerful minority. 10 In the West, however, few experienced commanders expressed reluctance to make use of Native Americans. Many, in fact, complained that they could never get enough Indian scouts. To them, the scouts added strength to deficient units, and their psychological impact on the enemy was an important deterrent to Apaches who hoped to escape reservation life. 11 Many Apache scouts had served formerly with such military leaders as Geronimo or Victorio and could, therefore, provide useful strategic advice to their army commanders.

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