By Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Mehdi Aminrazavi
Persia is domestic to at least one of the few civilizations on this planet that has had a continuing culture of philosophical notion for over and a part millennia. As Islamic theology constructed within the heart a while, a lot of its faculties interacted with current Persian philosophical currents and developed right into a precise philosophical 'Kalam', or dogmatic theology. one of the definitive masters of either Shi'i and Sunni theologians have been a variety of Persians, leader between them Al-Ghazzali and Fakhr al-Din Al-Razi, who're prominently represented the following. vital choices from either Shi'i and Sunni theological faculties (including Mu'tazila and Ash'ariyya) are incorporated within the quantity, lots of that have by no means ahead of been to be had in translation within the West previously.
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Extra info for An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia, Volume 3: Philosophical Theology in the Middle Ages and Beyond
Part. 2, p. 44. Ibid. Part. 2, p. 47. Ibid. Part. 2, p. 58. This section is from Madhāhib al-Islāmiyyīn, pp. 235–238. ’ Ibrāhīm al-Naẓẓām 35 fire should [penetrate] the flint without burning it. ’ ‘Many theoreticians have argued that fire is latent in the flint; they even held that it is latent in the wood. These include al-Iskāfī and others. Zurqān also reported that Abū Bakr al-ʿAṣamm held that there is nothing which is latent in something else, as they claim. ’ ‘Many atheists held that colours, tastes and smells are latent in earth, water and fire, and then they appear in the ripe date and other fruits by transmission and the contact of shapes with one another.
The difference between saying that He is a knower in Himself not through knowledge and saying He is a Knower through knowledge which is identical with Himself is that the first statement entails negating the attribute [of knowledge]; whereas the second asserts an essence which is in itself an attribute, or asserts an attribute which in itself is an essence; and since Abu’l-Hudhayl has asserted these attributes as aspects of the Essence, they are identical with the hypostases of the Christians or the ‘states’ of Abū Hāshim [al-Jubbā’ī].
These men belonged to a milieu in which Arabic and Persian elements were mixed but were nevertheless well within the influence of the Persianate intellectual world and should be viewed as a link between the very early proponents of kalām and later Persian kalām scholars. Further explanations for their inclusion in this book have been elaborated in Seyyed Hossein Nasr’s General Introduction. In Part I of this volume is devoted to Muʿtazilism. The first chapter begins with a series of propositions by al-ʿAllāf concerning God’s knowledge and its relationship to free will and determinism, and then deals with with the question of Divine Speech and the created or uncreated nature of the Qurʾān.